Wordlwide Market for PCR

The Worldwide Markets for PCR Technologies

$ 4,550.00

This report identifes PCR market dynamics in various regions and forecasts the potential of the market related to product segments, technology segments, and end-use segments.

Customization of this study to address the specific needs of clients can be done  in terms of detailed analysis of regional markets, selected technology segments, specific end-use segments, technology assessments or detailed regulatory landscape analysis. For such requirements, please contact by e-mailing to info@acubiz.com.co.

Product Description

  • During the past three decades since its invention, PCR has evolved to become one of the fundamental technology platforms in life sciences sector. The application segments of this platform are still expanding, driven by the expiry of key PCR patents. The demand for fast, accurate, and affordable diagnosis tests in healthcare segment has been another key driver of the PCR market.  The rising investments in the field of companion diagnostics have also been boosting the demand for PCR. Food safety testing is another significant end-use segment of the technology, driven by both consumer demand and regulatory requirements.

    While developed countries still dominate the PCR market, the emerging markets are showing strong growth trends. In this latest study titled “The Worldwide Markets for PCR Technologies”, AcuBiz Consulting analysts identify market dynamics in various regions and forecasts the potential of the market related to product segments, technology segments, and end-use segments. The global market, which stood at $10.6 billion in 2013, is expected to grow at a CAGR of around 8% during 2013-2018. Even though North America had highest market share in 2013, the region is expected to grow at a relatively lower CAGR of around 6% during the forecast period, while Asia Pacific region is forecasted to grow at a CAGR of over 11% during the same period.

    The report estimates the market size of the key product and application segments of PCR and forecasts the growth based on market dynamics of these segments, which can impact the demand for PCR.  Various technology segments are also analysed in detail.

    The study assesses alternate platforms that can potentially impact the demand for PCR. Evolving trends with respect to various aspects of PCR technology are also analysed in detail. This is followed by patent analysis to identify most active areas within PCR market that are gaining attention and investment by stake holders.Regulatory landscape of the key regional markets and end-use segments are also included in the report, since regulatory requirements directly impact the demand for PCR-based tests.

    Finally, the report analyses the activities of key players in the market. The company profiles section divides the companies into Tier-1 companies and Tier-2 and other promising companies. This section includes nearly 90 profiles, and includes companies in the emerging markets such as China, India, Southeast Asia, Latin America, and East Europe.

  • Introduction

    Study Goal and Outline

    Rationale for this Study

    Targeted Audience

    Market Definition and Scope

    Information Sources and Methodologies

    Customization of this study

    Disclaimer

    Executive summary

    CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW

    Definition of Polymerase Chain Reaction

    History of PCR

    The Concept

    Important Considerations

    PCR Platforms – Popular and Emerging

    Allele-specific PCR (ASPCR)

    Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms PCR (AFLP-PCR)

    Assembly PCR

    Asymmetric PCR

    Capillary PCR

    Colony PCR

    Digital PCR (dPCR)

    Direct PCR

    Hot-Start PCR

    In Situ PCR

    Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat PCR (ISSR-PCR)

    Inverse PCR

    Long PCR

    Long Accurate PCR (LA PCR)

    Methylation-Specific PCR

    Mini Primer PCR

    Multiplex PCR

    Nanoparticle Assisted PCR (Nano PCR)

    Nested PCR

    Overlap-Extension PCR (OE-PCR)

    Quantitative Fluorescence PCR (QF-PCR)

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR

    Real-Time PCR

    Repetitive Sequence-Based PCR (rep-PCR)

    Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR)

    Single Cell PCR

    Solid Phase PCR

    Thermal Asymmetric Interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR)

    Touchdown PCR

    Universal Fast Walking PCR (UFW)

    End-Use Segments of PCR

    Medical Diagnostics Segments

    Cancer

    Infectious Diseases

    Prenatal Diagnostics

    Food Safety Testing, Agricultural, and Environmental Segments

    Food-Borne and Water-Borne Infections

    I.Campylobacterand its subspecies (Campylobacter spp.)

    II.Escherichia coli (E. coli)

    III.Listeria monocytogenesand its subspecies (Listeria spp.)

    IV.Salmonella and its Subspecies (Salmonella spp.)

    V.Other Food-Borne and Water-Borne Pathogens

    Veterinary Infection Diagnostics

    Plant Infection Diagnostics

    GMO Foods/Plants Testing

    Food Allergens and Animal Species in Food

    Forensic Sciences

    Life Sciences Research

    miRNA Analysis

    Mutations Detection

    SNP Detection and Genotyping

    Sequencing

    Application of PCR in NGS Library Quantification

    Genetic Fingerprinting

    Site-Directed Mutagenesis (SDM)

    Market Trends

    Widening Application Scope

    Patent Expiries during the Forecast Period

    Dominance of PCR over Alternative Pathogen Diagnostics Options

    Technological Advancements Enabling High Throughput as well as Point-of-Care (POC)

    Diagnostics

    Advent of Digital PCR

    Strong Growth Trends in Single-Cell Analysis (SCA)

    The Rising Demand for Molecular Diagnostics

    The Rising Food Safety Testing Regulations

    Market Drivers

    Market Challenges

    Rising Merger and Acquisition Trends

    CHAPTER 2: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE

    Analysis of Global PCR Technology Markets

    Analysis of Key End-Use Segments

    Medical Diagnostics

    Food, Agriculture, etc.

    Life Sciences Research

    Real-Time PCR vs. Other PCR Technologies

    Regional Markets

    North America

    The European Union

    Asia Pacific (APAC)

    Rest of World (ROW)

    CHAPTER 3: LEGISLATION AND REGULATION

    MIQE Guidelines and RDML

    Regulatory Landscape of PCR Technologies in Medical Diagnostics Fields

    Regulation of Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs) in USA

    Regulatory Landscape of PCR Technologies Targeting Food and Agricultural Segments

    USA

    European Union (EU)

    Japan

    Australia and NewZealand

    China

    South Korea

    Other Selected Countries (Brazil, Canada, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Russia and Singapore)

    Forensics

    CHAPTER 4: TECHNOLOGY TREND ANALYSIS

    Automation of PCR

    Touch-screen Options for Ease-of-Use

    Networking and Remote Controlling Capabilities

    Low Throughput Systems

    Lab-On-A-Chip Formats and Portability

    Application of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) and Convection Principles in PCR

    Automated High Throughput Instruments for Large Scale Applications

    Evolution in Heating Technologies for Efficient Thermal Cycling

    Speed

    Detectors

    Light Source

    Improving Multiplexing Efficiency

    Fluorescence Chemistry

    TaqMan Probe

    Molecular Beacons and Scorpions

    The Early Adopters of dPCR

    Widening Scope within Molecular Biology Platforms

    CHAPTER 5: PATENT ANALYSIS

    Assessing the Popularity of PCR Platforms on the Basis of Patenting Trends

    Patenting Trends in Selected End-Use Segments of PCR

    Analysis of Patenting Trends in Infectious Diseases Sector

    Analysis of Patenting Trends in Cancer Sector

    The Rising Popularity of Real-Time PCR

    End-Use Segments where Digital PCR Influence is Growing

    Patenting Trends of Key Players in the PCR Market

    Patenting Trends of Companies in the Real-Time PCR Segment

    Patenting Trends of Companies within the Digital PCR Segment

    CHAPTER 6: COMPANY PROFILES

    Tier-1 Companies

    Abbott Laboratories

    Affymetrix, Inc.

    Agilent Technologies, Inc.

    bioMérieux S.A.

    Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.

    Cepheid, Inc.

    Eppendorf AG

    F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.

    Merck Millipore International

    Promega Corporation

    QIAGEN N.V.

    Sigma-Aldrich Corporation

    Takara Bio, Inc.

    Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.

    Toyobo Co., Ltd

    Tier-2 and Other Promising Companies

    A & A Biotechnology

    AgriGen Biotech Pty. Ltd.

    AITbiotech Pte. Ltd.

    Altona Diagnostics GmbH

    Analytik Jena AG

    AnDiaTec GmbH & Co. KG

    Aristogene Biosciences Pvt. Ltd.

    Asia-Pacific Special Nutrients Sdn. Bhd.

    AsiaGen Corporation

    Bio Basic Canada, Inc.

    Bibby Scientific Limited

    Bioer Technology Co., Ltd.

    Bioline Reagents Limited

    BIONEER Corporation

    Bionexus, Inc.

    Biotium, Inc.

    Chromous Biotech Pvt. Ltd.

    DAAN Gene Co., Ltd.

    DNA-Technology LLC

    E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company

    Ecoli s.r.o

    ELITech Group

    Eurogentec S.A.

    Favorgen BioTech Corporation

    Fisher Biotec Pty. Ltd.

    Fluidigm Corporation

    Funglyn Biotech, Inc.

    G-Storm

    Gaia Science (M) Sdn. Bhd.

    Geneflux Biosciences Sdn. Bhd.

    GenoID Ltd.

    geneOmbio Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

    GeneReach Biotechnology Corporation

    GeneTech Biotechnology Pvt. Ltd.

    GeneWorks Pty. Ltd.

    Genome Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd. / Professional Biotech Pvt. Ltd.

    Guangzhou Dongsheng Biotech Co., Ltd.

    Hy Laboratories Ltd.

    i-DNA Biotechnology Pte. Ltd.

    iCubate, Inc.

    Illumina, Inc.

    Inqaba Biotechnical Industries (Pty) Ltd.

    Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc.

    InterLabService Ltd.

    JN Medsys Pte. Ltd.

    Kapa Biosystems, Inc.

    KIAGEN-Biotech

    KogeneBiotech Co., Ltd.

    Kyratec Ltd.

    LGC Genomics Ltd.

    LIR Biotech (Lab-Ind Resource Sdn. Bhd.)

    Lucigen Corporation

    Medical Innovation Ventures Sdn. Bhd.

    Molecular Cloning Laboratories (MCLAB)

    Multiplicom N.V.

    New England Biolabs, Inc.

    Next Gene Scientific Sdn. Bhd.

    Norgen Biotek Corporation

    Ocimum Biosolutions Ltd.

    Olipro Biotechnology Sdn. Bhd.

    PathoFinder B.V.

    PREMIER Biosoft International

    PrimeraDx, Inc.

    RainDance Technologies, Inc.

    RBC BioScience Corporation

    Sacace Biotechnologies Srl

    Seegene, Inc.

    Shanghai Hongshi Medical Technology Co., Ltd.

    Shanghai Kehua Bio-Engineering Co., Ltd.

    ShineGene Bio-Technologies, Inc.

    TransGen Biotech, Inc.

    Xi’an Tianlong Science and Technology Co., Ltd.

    Zoologix, Inc.

    GLOSSARY

    List of Tables
    Table 1: Timeline of PCR Technology History (1983 – 2013)
    Table 2: Timeline of Real-Time PCR History
    Table 3: Timeline of Digital PCR History
    Table 4: Some Important Factors to be Considered while Planning PCR Experiments
    Table 5: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Colony PCR
    Table 6: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Digital PCR
    Table 7: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Direct PCR
    Table 8: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Hot-Start PCR
    Table 9: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of In Situ PCR
    Table 10: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Long PCR
    Table 11: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Long Accurate PCR
    Table 12: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Methylation-Specific PCR
    Table 13: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Multiplex PCR
    Table 14: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Nested PCR
    Table 15: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Quantitative Fluorescence PCR
    Table 16: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA PCR
    Table 17: Commonly Used Detection Chemistries in Real-Time PCR
    Table 18: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Real-Time PCR
    Table 19: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Reverse Transcription PCR
    Table 20: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Single Cell PCR
    Table 21: Key Players and Their Products in the Field of Universal Fast Walking PCR
    Table 22: Key Players Offering PCR-Based Cancer Diagnostics Products in the Market
    Table 23: Key Players Offering PCR-Based Diagnostics Products Targeting Human Infections
    Table 24: Key Players Offering PCR-Based Prenatal Diagnostics Products in the Market
    Table 25: Common Commercial Systems Used for Food Pathogen Detection
    Table 26: International Standards and Guidelines for Campylobacter spp. Identification
    Table 27: Key Players Offering PCR-Based Kits to Detect Campylobacter and Its Subspecies
    Table 28: International Standards and Guidelines for Escherichia coli Detection
    Table 29: Key Players Offering PCR-Based kits to Detect Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Its Subspecies
    Table 30: International Standards and Guidelines for Listeria Detection
    Table 31: Key Players Offering PCR-Based kits to Detect Listeria monocytogenes and Its Subspecies
    Table 32: International Standards and Guidelines for Salmonella Detection
    Table 33: Key Players Offering PCR-Based kits to Detect Salmonella and Its Subspecies
    Table 34: Key Players Offering PCR-Based kits to Detect Other Selected Food-Borne and Water-Borne Pathogens
    Table 35: Key Players Offering PCR-Based Veterinary Diagnostics Products
    Table 36: Key Players Offering PCR-Based Diagnostics Products Targeting Plant Infections
    Table 37: Key Players Offering PCR-Based Kits to Detect GMO Foods/Plants in the Market
    Table 38: Key Players Offering PCR-Based Kits to Detect Food Allergens and Animal Species in Food in the Market
    Table 39: Key Players Offering PCR-Based Human Identity and Forensic Testing Products in the Market
    Table 40: Key Players Offering Products for MicroRNA Analysis Involving PCR Technology
    Table 41: Key Players Offering PCR-Based Mutations Detection Products
    Table 42: Key Players Offering PCR-Based Products for SNPs Detection and Genotyping
    Table 43: Key Players Offering PCR-Based Sequencing Products
    Table 44: Key Players Offering NGS Library Quantification Products that Incorporate PCR Technology
    Table 45: Key Players Offering PCR-Related Products for Genotyping/DNA Fingerprinting
    Table 46: Key Players Offering PCR-Based Site-Directed Mutagenesis Products
    Table 47: Basic PCR Patents Expired in 28 March 2005 in USA
    Table 48: Key Patents in Selected PCR Market Segments and their Expiry Dates in USA
    Table 49: Market Drivers of the Global PCR Market
    Table 50: Market Restraints of the Global PCR Markets
    Table 51: Key Mergers and Acquisitions during the Past Five Years Relevant in PCR Market (2010-2014)
    Table 52: Global PCR Technology Markets, By Value (USD, Million)
    Table 53: Global PCR Technologies Demand by End-Use Segments, by Value (USD, Million)
    Table 54: Global Demand for Real-Time PCR, By Value (USD, Million)
    Table 55: Global PCR Technology Markets by Region, By Value (USD, Million)
    Table 56: PCR Market Segments and their Growth Trends in North America, By Value (USD, Million)
    Table 57: PCR Market Segments and their Growth Trends in the EU, By Value (USD, Million)
    Table 58: PCR Market Segments and their Growth Trends in APAC, By Value (USD, Million)
    Table 59: PCR Market Segments and their Growth Trends in ROW, By Value (USD, Million)
    Table 60: Regulatory Agencies Responsible for Molecular Diagnostics in Key Markets
    Table 61: Regulatory Agencies Influencing Genetic Testing in USA
    Table 62: Laws and Regulations Influencing PCR-based Medical Diagnostics Markets in USA
    Table 63: Laws and Regulations Influencing PCR-based Medical Diagnostics Markets in Australia
    Table 64: Key Laws and Regulations Influencing PCR-based Medical Diagnostics Markets in Other Selected Countries
    Table 65: Main International Agencies Involved in Food Safety Aspects
    Table 66: GMO Labeling Regulations in Selected Countries
    Table 67: Agencies Responsible for Food Safety Testing Regulations in USA
    Table 68: Food Safety Laws and Regulations Influencing PCR Technologies Markets in USA
    Table 69: Selected Regulatory Agencies Responsible for Food Safety and GMO Testing in EU
    Table 70: Food Safety Laws and Regulations Influencing PCR Technologies Markets in EU
    Table 71: Regulatory Agencies Responsible for Food Safety in Japan
    Table 72: Food Safety Laws and Regulations Influencing PCR Technologies Market in Japan
    Table 73: Regulatory Agencies Responsible for Food Safety in Australia and New Zealand
    Table 74: Food Safety Laws and Regulations in Australia and New Zealand
    Table 75: Food Safety Laws and Regulations in China
    Table 76: Regulatory Agencies Responsible for Food Safety in South Korea
    Table 77: Food Safety Laws and Regulations in South Korea
    Table 78: Regulatory Agencies Responsible for Food Safety in Other Selected Countries
    Table 79: Food Safety Laws and Regulations in Other Selected Countries
    Table 80: Frequently Used PCR Kits Accepted at NDIS, USA
    Table 81: Selected Companies Enabling High Throughput in qPCR
    Table 82: Comparison of the Reaction Formats of Selected Real-Time PCR Instruments in the Market
    Table 83: Comparison of the Thermal Modules of Selected Commercial Real-Time PCR Systems
    Table 84: Comparison of the Optical Modules of Selected Real-Time PCR Systems in the Market
    Table 85: Technical Approaches Adopted for Limiting Off-Target Amplification in Multiplex qPCR Assays
    Table 86: Fluorescence Chemistry and Multiplex Capability of Selected qPCR Systems in the Market
    Table 87: Comparison of Patenting Trends in Selected PCR Segments (1983 – 2013)
    Table 88: Selected Patents on Digital PCR
    Table 89: Selected Patents on Inverse PCR
    Table 90: Selected Patents on Multiplex PCR
    Table 91: Selected Patents on Nested PCR
    Table 92: Selected Patents on Real-Time PCR
    Table 93: Selected Patents on Reverse Transcription PCR
    Table 94: PCR-Based Diagnostics – Patenting Trends in Selected Infectious Disease Areas
    Table 95: PCR-Based Diagnostics – Patenting Trends in Selected Cancer Segments
    Table 96: PCR-Based Diagnostics – Patenting Trends in Selected End-Use Segments
    Table 97: Assessing the Influence of Real Time PCR in Selected End-Use Segments
    Table 98: End-Use Segments where dPCR Patenting Activities are Growing
    Table 99: Patents by Selected Key Players Related to Real-Time PCR
    Table 100: Patents by Key Players Related to Digital PCR
    Table 101: Affymetrix Revenue Shares, by Business Unit, 2013
    Table 102: Bio-Rad Laboratories Revenue Shares, by Segment, 2013
    Table 103: Clinical and Non-Clinical Revenue Shares, 2013
    Table 104: Roche Diagnostics – Main Businesses and their Revenues, 2013
    Table 105: Selected PCR-Based Companion Diagnostics Under Development by Roche
    Table 106: Merck Millipore Revenue Shares, by Business Segments, 2013
    Table 107: Geographic Distribution of QIAGEN Revenues, 2012-2013 (USD, Million)
    Table 108: Main Business Units of Sigma-Aldrich and Their Revenue Shares, 2013
    Table 109: Takara Bio Revenue Shares, by Business Segment, Fiscal Year 2013
    Table 110: Thermo Fisher Scientific Revenue Shares, by Business Segments, 2013
    Table 111:  Toyobo Revenue Shares, by Business Segment, Fiscal Year 2013
    Table 112: Revenue Shares of Illumina, By Product Category, 2012-2013 (USD, Million)

    List of Figures
    Figure 1: Market Shares and Forecasts of PCR Technology Market Segments
    Figure 2: PCR Instruments Markets by Region, 2013
    Figure 3: PCR Reagents and Consumables Markets by Region, 2013
    Figure 4: PCR Platforms with Intense Patenting Activities during the Past Three Decades
    Figure 5: Abbott Revenue Shares, by Region, 2013
    Figure 6: Affymetrix Revenue Shares, by Product Category, 2013
    Figure 7: Agilent Technologies Revenue Shares, by Business Group, 2013
    Figure 8: Bio-Rad Laboratories Revenue Shares, by Region, 2013
    Figure 9: Cepheid Revenue Shares, by Region, 2013
    Figure 10: Eppendorf Revenue Shares, by Region, 2013
    Figure 11: Roche Diagnostics Revenue Shares, by Region, 2013
    Figure 12: Merck Millipore Revenue Shares, by Region, 2013
    Figure 13: Revenue Distribution by Customer Categories, QIAGEN, 2013
    Figure 14: Revenue Shares of Sigma-Aldrich Business Units, by Region, 2013
    Figure 15: Takara Bio Revenue Shares, by Business Segment, Fiscal Year 2013
    Figure 16: Thermo Fisher Scientific Revenue Shares, by Region, 2013
    Figure 17: Life Technologies Revenue Shares, by Region, 2012
    Figure 18: Fluidigm Revenue Shares, by Region, 2013
    Figure 19: Illumina Revenue Shares, by Region, 2013

  • Tier-1 Companies

    Abbott Laboratorie

    Affymetrix, Inc.

    Agilent Technologies, Inc.

    bioMérieux S.A.

    Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.

    Cepheid, Inc.

    Eppendorf AG

    F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.

    Merck Millipore International

    Promega Corporation

    QIAGEN N.V.

    Sigma-Aldrich Corporation

    Takara Bio, Inc.

    Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.

    Toyobo Co., Ltd

    Tier-2 and Other Promising Companies

    A & A Biotechnology

    AgriGen Biotech Pty. Ltd.

    AITbiotech Pte. Ltd.

    Altona Diagnostics GmbH

    Analytik Jena AG

    AnDiaTec GmbH & Co. KG

    Aristogene Biosciences Pvt. Ltd.

    Asia-Pacific Special Nutrients Sdn. Bhd.

    AsiaGen Corporation

    Bio Basic Canada, Inc.

    Bibby Scientific Limited

    Bioer Technology Co., Ltd.

    Bioline Reagents Limited

    BIONEER Corporation

    Bionexus, Inc.

    Biotium, Inc.

    Chromous Biotech Pvt. Ltd.

    DAAN Gene Co., Ltd.

    DNA-Technology LLC

    E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company

    Ecoli s.r.o

    ELITech Group

    Eurogentec S.A.

    Favorgen BioTech Corporation

    Fisher Biotec Pty. Ltd.

    Fluidigm Corporation

    Funglyn Biotech, Inc.

    G-Storm

    Gaia Science (M) Sdn. Bhd.

    Geneflux Biosciences Sdn. Bhd.

    GenoID Ltd.

    geneOmbio Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

    GeneReach Biotechnology Corporation

    GeneTech Biotechnology Pvt. Ltd.

    GeneWorks Pty. Ltd.

    Genome Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd. / Professional Biotech Pvt. Ltd.

    Guangzhou Dongsheng Biotech Co., Ltd.

    Hy Laboratories Ltd.

    i-DNA Biotechnology Pte. Ltd.

    iCubate, Inc.

    Illumina, Inc.

    Inqaba Biotechnical Industries (Pty) Ltd.

    Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc.

    InterLabService Ltd.

    JN Medsys Pte. Ltd.

    Kapa Biosystems, Inc.

    KIAGEN-Biotech

    KogeneBiotech Co., Ltd.

    Kyratec Ltd.

    LGC Genomics Ltd.

    LIR Biotech (Lab-Ind Resource Sdn. Bhd.)

    Lucigen Corporation

    Medical Innovation Ventures Sdn. Bhd.

    Molecular Cloning Laboratories (MCLAB)

    Multiplicom N.V.

    New England Biolabs, Inc.

    Gene Scientific Sdn. Bhd.

    Norgen Biotek Corporation

    Ocimum Biosolutions Ltd.

    Olipro Biotechnology Sdn. Bhd.

    PathoFinder B.V.

    PREMIER Biosoft International

    PrimeraDx, Inc.

    RainDance Technologies, Inc.

    RBC BioScience Corporation

    Sacace Biotechnologies Srl

    Seegene, Inc.

    Shanghai Hongshi Medical Technology Co., Ltd.

    Shanghai Kehua Bio-Engineering Co., Ltd.

    ShineGene Bio-Technologies, Inc.

    TransGen Biotech, Inc.

    Xi’an Tianlong Science and Technology Co., Ltd.

    Zoologix, Inc.